G.L-W.: Documents, Treaties, Acts & Essays

A Compilation of Documents, Treaties, Acts, Agreements, Quotes etc. mainly pertaining to Constitution, EU etc.

Archive for the ‘United States’ Category

AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE

Posted by Greg Lance - Watkins (Greg_L-W) on 04/07/2012

AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE
& Signators. 
The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:
Column 1

Georgia:
   Button Gwinnett
   Lyman Hall
   George Walton

Column 2

North Carolina:
   William Hooper
   Joseph Hewes
   John Penn
South Carolina:
   Edward Rutledge
   Thomas Heyward, Jr.
   Thomas Lynch, Jr.
   Arthur Middleton

Column 3

Massachusetts:
John Hancock
Maryland:
Samuel Chase
William Paca
Thomas Stone
Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Virginia:
George Wythe
Richard Henry Lee
Thomas Jefferson
Benjamin Harrison
Thomas Nelson, Jr.
Francis Lightfoot Lee
Carter Braxton

Column 4

Pennsylvania:
   Robert Morris
   Benjamin Rush
   Benjamin Franklin
   John Morton
   George Clymer
   James Smith
   George Taylor
   James Wilson
   George Ross
Delaware:
   Caesar Rodney
   George Read
   Thomas McKean

Column 5

New York:
   William Floyd
   Philip Livingston
   Francis Lewis
   Lewis Morris
New Jersey:
   Richard Stockton
   John Witherspoon
   Francis Hopkinson
   John Hart
   Abraham Clark

Column 6

New Hampshire:
   Josiah Bartlett
   William Whipple
Massachusetts:
   Samuel Adams
   John Adams
   Robert Treat Paine
   Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island:
   Stephen Hopkins
   William Ellery
Connecticut:
   Roger Sherman
   Samuel Huntington
   William Williams
   Oliver Wolcott
New Hampshire:
   Matthew Thornton
.
“In politics, stupidity is not a handicap.” Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821),

Regards, Greg L-W. For all my contact details & Blogs: CLICK HERE

SOME QUICK BLOG CONTACTS:

Greg Lance-Watkins: CLICK HERE

Greg L-W.: CLICK HERE

UKIP-vs-EUkip: CLICK HERE

TheMidnightGroup: CLICK HERE

INDEPENDENT Leave-The-EU Alliance: CLICK HERE

‘The arrogance and hubris of corrupt politicians will be responsible for every drop of blood spilt in the Wars of Disassociation, if Britain does not leave the EU.

The ugly, centralised, undemocratic supra national policies being imposed by the centralised and largely unelected decisionmakers of The EU for alien aims, ailien values and to suit alien needs stand every possibility of creating 200,000,000 deaths across EUrope as a result of the blind arrogance and hubris of the idiologues in the central dictatorship, and their economic illiteracy marching hand in glove with the idiocy of The CAP & The CFP – both policies which deliver bills, destroy lives and denude food stocks.

The EU, due to the political idiocy and corruption of its undemocratic leaders, is now a net importer of food, no longer able to feed itself and with a decreasing range of over priced goods, of little use to the rest of the world, to sell with which to counter the net financial drain of endless imports.  

British Politicians with pens and treachery, in pursuit of their own agenda and greed, have done more damage to the liberty, freedoms, rights and democracy of the British peoples than any army in over 1,000 years.

The disastrous effects of British politicians selling Britain into the thrall of foreign rule by the EU for their own personal rewards has damaged the well-being of Britain more than the armies of Hitler and the Franco – German – Italian axis of 1939 – 1945.

 Until we gain our liberty, restore our sovereignty, repatriate our democracy and reinstate our Justice system and our borders – defended by our Police and Military armed with sustainable and obtainable weaponry: Treat every election as a referendum.

Don’t spoil your Ballot Paper by wasting it on a self serving Politician in ANY election until we are liberated from the EU and are a Free Sovereign peoples, with independent control of our own borders, making and managing Law & Justice for our own benefit, in our own elected Westminster Parliament where we can fire our politicians at the ballot box, if they fail to represent OUR best interests and de-centralise their powers.

Make your vote count Write on YOUR ballot Paper in EVERY Election:  
to GET YOUR COUNTRY BACK
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Posted in English law, United States, United States Declaration of Independence | Leave a Comment »

AMERICA – The BILL of RIGHTS

Posted by Greg Lance - Watkins (Greg_L-W) on 04/03/2012

AMERICA – The BILL of RIGHTS
&
The Preamble to The Bill of Rights

Congress of the United States
begun and held at the City of New-York, on
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.

RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.

ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.

Note: The following text is a transcription of the first ten amendments to the Constitution in their original form. These amendments were ratified December 15, 1791, and form what is known as the “Bill of Rights.”


Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.


Amendment II

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.


Amendment III

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.


Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.


Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.


In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.


In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.


Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.


Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.


AMENDMENT XIPassed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.
Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11.
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.



AMENDMENT XIIPassed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.
Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th amendment.
The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; — the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. –]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
*Superseded by section 3 of the 20th amendment.



AMENDMENT XIIIPassed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.
Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment.
Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.



AMENDMENT XIV Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.
Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment.
Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Section 2.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
Section 3.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
Section 4.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
Section 5.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
*Changed by section 1 of the 26th amendment.



AMENDMENT XV Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.
Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude–
Section 2.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.



AMENDMENT XVIPassed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.
Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.



AMENDMENT XVIIPassed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.
Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th amendment.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.



AMENDMENT XVIII Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Repealed by amendment 21.
Section 1.
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
Section 2.
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.



AMENDMENT XIXPassed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.



AMENDMENT XXPassed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933.
Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3.
Section 1.
The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
Section 2.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.
Section 3.
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
Section 4.
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.
Section 5.
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.
Section 6.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.



AMENDMENT XXIPassed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.
Section 1.
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
Section 2.
The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.



AMENDMENT XXIIPassed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.
Section 1.
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
Section 2.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.



AMENDMENT XXIIIPassed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.
Section 1.
The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct:
A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.



AMENDMENT XXIVPassed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964.
Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.
Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.



AMENDMENT XXVPassed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.
Note: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was affected by the 25th amendment.
Section 1.
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
Section 2.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
Section 3.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
Section 4.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.



AMENDMENT XXVIPassed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971.
Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1 of the 26th amendment.
Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.
Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.



AMENDMENT XXVII Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992.
No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.

 .
“In politics, stupidity is not a handicap.” 
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821),

Regards,
Greg L-W.  
For all my contact details & Blogs: CLICK HERE

 
SOME QUICK BLOG CONTACTS:

Greg Lance-Watkins: CLICK HERE

Greg L-W.: CLICK HERE

UKIP-vs-EUkip: CLICK HERE

TheMidnightGroup: CLICK HERE

INDEPENDENT Leave-The-EU Alliance: CLICK HERE


‘The arrogance and hubris of corrupt politicians will be responsible for every drop of blood spilt in the Wars of Disassociation, if Britain does not leave the EU.

The ugly, centralised, undemocratic supra national policies being imposed by the centralised and largely unelected decisionmakers of The EU for alien aims, ailien values and to suit alien needs stand every possibility of creating 200,000,000 deaths across EUrope as a result of the blind arrogance and hubris of the idiologues in the central dictatorship, and their economic illiteracy marching hand in glove with the idiocy of The CAP & The CFP – both policies which deliver bills, destroy lives and denude food stocks.

The EU, due to the political idiocy and corruption of its undemocratic leaders, is now a net importer of food, no longer able to feed itself and with a decreasing range of over priced goods, of little use to the rest of the world, to sell with which to counter the net financial drain of endless imports.  

British Politicians with pens and treachery, in pursuit of their own agenda and greed, have done more damage to the liberty, freedoms, rights and democracy of the British peoples than any army in over 1,000 years.

The disastrous effects of British politicians selling Britain into the thrall of foreign rule by the EU for their own personal rewards has damaged the well-being of Britain more than the armies of Hitler and the Franco – German – Italian axis of 1939 – 1945.

 Until we gain our liberty, restore our sovereignty, repatriate our democracy and reinstate our Justice system and our borders – defended by our Police and Military armed with sustainable and obtainable weaponry: Treat every election as a referendum.

Don’t spoil your Ballot Paper by wasting it on a self serving Politician in ANY election until we are liberated from the EU and are a Free Sovereign peoples, with independent control of our own borders, making and managing Law & Justice for our own benefit, in our own elected Westminster Parliament where we can fire our politicians at the ballot box, if they fail to represent OUR best interests and de-centralise their powers.

Make your vote count Write on YOUR ballot Paper in EVERY Election:  
to GET YOUR COUNTRY BACK
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#GD031* – MAGNA CARTA – Notated

Posted by Greg Lance - Watkins (Greg_L-W) on 19/03/2011

#GD031* – MAGNA CARTA – Notated
The  
Magna Carta
 
IF you have no interest in YOUR rights, freedoms and Justice both for you, your children & Grandchildren or YOUR Country please just delete this copy of part of YOUR Constitution.
The Constitution of Britain.
JUST USE DELETE but please vote against imposing an alien so called Constitution, so redolent of the USSR, upon your fellows; at the corrupt referendum on the EU’s squalid new 844 web pages of binding controls, in the Franco German binding Constitution for the central soviet of the EU.

Resist Removal of YOUR rights and those who come after you at every opportunity.

Liberty & Freedom are hard won privileges for which YOUR ancestors gave their lives – it ill becomes you to debase their memory by squandering those privileges they won for YOU.

YOU are the custodian of YOUR ancient rights for future generations.

Use Delete by all means
but
VOTE NO
to
vassal status
of the supra national, corrupt and centralised
EU.
Hi,
I do hope that having this copy of one of the plank documents of The British Constitution will help you to explain to the uninformed and rebut those who seek to commit treason and abuse their position as politicians or betray their Country, its freedoms, rights and independent sovereignty undermining our democracy and destroying our future by their attempts to dupe the British peoples into surrendering theirs and their children’s future for all time to an unarguably corrupt, centralised and undemocratic supra national EUropean soviet – which seeks to emulate the USSR in its over regulated dictatorial centralisation of a territorially ambitious unaccountable police controlled state over energetically supplied with laws on every matter and Justice in none.
Reject Britain accepting vassal status and serf like control of our peoples by the imposition of a so called Constitution for this evil new Empire – the EU.
We have rights and freedoms in Britain – enshrined in our Constitution and ‘doubly entrenched’ in Law – this has served us well for 1,000 years. We have no need of the squalid concept of surrender to the new Franco German super state as enshrined in THEIR exclusive Treaty of Elysee of the 1960s.
The Magna Carta

1215

1297

THE CHARTER OF LIBERTIES OF 1215
Preamble
John, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Count of Anjou, to the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Earls, Barons, Justiciaries, Foresters, Sheriffs, Reeves, Stewards, Servants, Ministers and to all his bailiffs and others, his faithful subjects, greeting.
Know ye that we, out of reverence for God and for the salvation of our soul and those of all our ancestors and heirs, for the honour of God and the advancement of holy Church, and for the reform of our realm, on the advice of our venerable fathers, Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England and cardinal of the holy Roman Church, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William of London, Peter of Winchester, Jocelyn of Bath and Glastonbury, Hugh of Lincoln, Walter of Worcester,  William of Coventry and Benedict of Rochester, Bishops; Master Pandulph, subdeacon and member of the household of the Lord Pope, of brother Aymeric, Master of the Knights of the Temple in England, and of the noble men William Marshal Earl of Pembroke, William Earl of Salisbury, William Earl Warenne, William Earl of Arundel, Alan of Galloway Constable of Scotland,  Warin son of Gerold, Peter son of Herbert, Hubert de Burgh seneschal of Poitou, Hugh de Neville, Matthew son of Herbert, Thomas Basset, Alan Basset, Philip d’Aubigny, Robert of Ropsley, John Marshal, John son of Hugh, and others, our faithful subjects:
01
The Church of England’s freedom and the grant of liberties to all freemen of the Kingdom
In the first place have granted to God, and by this Our present charter confirmed for Us and Our Heirs for ever, that the English Church shall be free, and shall have its rights undiminished and its liberties unimpaired; and it is Our will that it be  thus observed; which is evident from the fact that, before the quarrel between Us and Our Barons began, We, willingly and spontaneously granted and by our charter confirmed the freedom of elections which is  reckoned most important and very essential to the English Church, and obtained confirmation of it from The Lord Pope Innocent III; the which We will observe and We wish Our Heirs to observe it in good faith for ever.
We have also granted to all freemen of Our Kingdom, for Ourselves and Our heirs for ever, all the liberties written below, to be had and held by them and their heirs of Us and Our Heirs.
02
Reliefs for Inheritance
If any of Our Earls or Barons or others holding of Us in chief by Knight services dies, and at his death his heir be of age and owe relief he shall have his inheritance on payment of the old relief, namely the heir or heirs of an Earl shall pay £100 for a whole Earl’s  Barony, the heir or heirs of a Knight 100s at most, for a whole Knight’s ‘fee’, and that any man who owes less let him give less according to the ancient custom of ‘fees’.
03
If The Heir is under age
If, however, the heir of any such be under age and a ward, he shall have his inheritance when he comes of age without paying relief and without making a fine.
04
The Rights of Wards
The guardian of the land of such an heir who is under age shall take from the land of the heir no more than reasonable sums, reasonable customary dues and reasonable services, and that  without destruction and waste of men or goods; and if We commit the wardship of the land of any such to a sheriff, or to any other who is answerable to Us for its revenues, and he destroys or wastes what he has wardship of, We will take compensation from him and the land shall be committed to two lawful and discreet men of that fief, who shall be responsible for the revenues to us or to him to whom We shall assign them; and if We give or sell to anyone the wardship of any such land and he causes destruction or waste therein, he shall lose that wardship, and it shall be transferred to two lawful and discreet men of that fief, who shall similarly be responsible to Us as is aforesaid.
05
Guardians and their Duties
Moreover, so long as he has the wardship of the land, the guardian shall keep in repair the houses, parks, preserves, ponds, mills and other things pertaining to the land out of the revenues from it; and he shall restore to the heir when he comes of age his land fully [totam] stocked with ploughs and the means of husbandry [waynagus] according to what the season of husbandry requires, and what the revenues of the land can reasonably bear.
06
Marriage of Heirs
Heirs shall be married without disparagement, yet so that  before the marriage is contracted those nearest in blood to the heir shall have notice.
07
Widow’s Rights
A widow shall have her marriage portion and inheritance forthwith and without difficulty after the death of her husband; nor shall she pay anything to have her dower or her marriage portion or the inheritance which she and her husband held on the day of her husband’s death; and she may remain in her husband’s house for forty days after his death, within which time her dower shall be assigned to her.
08
Widow’s Remarriage
No widow shall be forced to marry so long as she wishes to live without a husband, provided that she gives security not to marry without our consent if she holds of Us, or without the consent of the lord of whom she holds, if she holds of another.
09
Sureties & Debtors
Neither We nor Our bailiffs will seize for any debt any land or rent, so long as the chattels of the debtor are sufficient to repay the debt; nor will those who have gone surety for the debtor be distrained so long as the principal debtor is himself able to pay the debt; and if the principal debtor fails to pay the debt, having nothing wherewith to pay it, then shall the Sureties answer for the debt; and they shall, if they wish, have the lands and rents of the  debtor until they are reimbursed for the debt which they have paid for him, unless the principal debtor can show that he has discharged his obligation in the matter to the said Sureties.
10
The Interest on Debts
If anyone who has borrowed from the Jews any sum, great or  small, dies before it is repaid, his heir shall pay no interest on the debt whilst he is under age, irrespective of whosoever tenant he may be; and if the debt falls into Our hands, We will not take in the bond anything except the principal mentioned.
11
The Rights of Widows and Heirs as to creditors
And if anyone dies indebted to the Jews, his wife shall have her  dower and pay nothing of that debt; and if the dead man leaves children who are under age, they shall be provided with necessaries befitting the holding of the deceased; and the debt shall be paid out of the residue, reserving, however, service due to Lords of the land; debts owing to others than Jews shall be dealt with in like manner.
12
No ‘aids’ other than by common counsel
No scutage or aid shall be imposed in Our Kingdom unless by Common Counsel of our Kingdom except for ransoming Our  person, for making Our eldest Son a Knight, and for once  marrying  our eldest daughter; and for these only a reasonable aid shall be levied. Be it done in like manner concerning aids from the city of London.
13
Liberties of London and other cities and towns etc.
And the city of London shall have all its ancient liberties and free customs as well by land as by water. Furthermore, We will and grant that all other cities, boroughs, towns and ports shall have all their liberties and free customs.
14
Calling together of a Council to asses & consent to ‘aids’
And to obtain the common assessing of an aid (except counsel of the Kingdom about the three cases aforesaid) or of a scutage, We will cause to be summoned the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Earls and greater Barons, individually by our letters – and, in addition, We will cause to be summoned generally through our sheriffs and bailiffs, those holding of us in chief – for a fixed date, namely, after the expiry of at least forty days, and to a  fixed place; and in all letters of such summons We will specify the reason for the summons. And when the summons has thus been made, the business shall proceed on the day appointed, according to the counsel of those present, although not all have come who were summoned.
15
Limiting the ‘aids’ of other Lords
We will not in future grant anyone the right to take an aid from his own freemen, except for ransoming his person, for making his eldest son a Knight and for once marrying his eldest daughter; and for these only a reasonable aid shall be levied.
16
Limiting a Knight’s fee
No one shall be compelled to do greater service for a Knight’s fee or for any other free holding than is due from it.
17
Justice to be fixed at a place
Common pleas shall not follow Our court, but shall be held in some fixed place.
18
Disputes to be held in the county where land is concerned
The ¼ Sessions
Inquests of novel disseisin, of mort d’ancestor, and of darrein presentment, shall not be held elsewhere than in the court of the county to which they relate [in suis tomitatibas] and in this manner – we, or, if we should be out of the realm, Our Chief Justiciary, will send two Justices through each county four times a year, who, with four Knights of each county chosen by the county, shall hold the said inquests in the county court, on the day and in the place of  meeting of the county court.
19
The Completion of assizes
And if the said inquests cannot be held on the day of the county court, there shall stay behind as many of the Knights and freeholders who were present at the county court on that day as are necessary for the sufficient making of judgements, according to the amount of the business.
20
Let the fine fit the crime not destroy livelihoods
A freeman shall not be amerced [fined] for a slight offence except in accordance with the degree of the offence, and for a grave offence he shall be amerced in accordance with its gravity, yet saving his way of living [contenementum]; and a merchant in the same way, saving his stock-in-trade [mercandisa]; and a villein shall be amerced in the same way, saving his means of livelihood [waynagium] – if they have fallen into our mercy: and none of the  aforesaid amercements shall be imposed except by the oath of  upright men of the neighbourhood.
21
Barons also
Earls and Barons shall not be amerced except by their peers, and only in accordance with the degree of the offence.
22
Clergymen also
No clerk shall be amerced in respect of his lay holding except after the manner of the others aforesaid and not in accordance with the amount of his ecclesiastical benefice.
23
Bridge building Obligations
No community or individual [nec villa nec homo] shall be compelled to make bridges at river banks, except those who from of old are legally bound to do so.
24
Trials Only by those Authorised
No sheriff, constable, coroners, or other of Our bailiffs, shall try [tencant] pleas of our Crown.
25
Rent controlling
All counties, hundreds, wapentakes and trithings shall be at the old rents without any additional payment, except our demesne manors.
26
Debts to the Crown
If any one holding a lay fief of Us dies and Our Sheriff or Our Bailiff shows our letters patent of summons for a debt that the deceased owed Us, it shall be lawful for Our Sheriff or Our Bailiff to attach and inventory chattels of the deceased found upon the lay fief to the value of that debt under the supervision of law-worthy men, provided that none of the chattels shall be removed until the debt which is manifest [clarum] has been paid to us in full; and the residue shall be left to the executors for carrying out the will of the deceased. And if nothing is owing to us from him, all the chattels shall go to the deceased, saving to his wife and children their reasonable shares.
27
Intestacy
If any freeman dies without leaving a will, his chattels shall be distributed by his nearest kinsfolk and friends under the   supervision of the church, saving to every one of the debts which the deceased owed him.
28
Compensation for removal of property
No constable or other bailiff of Ours shall take anyone’s corn or  other chattels unless he pays spot cash for them or can delay  payment by arrangement with the seller.
29
Castle/Tile Guard
No Constable shall compel any Knight to give money instead of castle-guard if he is willing to do Tile Guard himself or through another good man, if for some good reason he cannot do it himself; and if We lead or send him on military service, he shall be exempt from guard in proportion to the time that because of Us he has been on service.
30
No removal of Horses without consent
No Sheriff or Bailiff of Ours, or anyone else [aliquis alius], shall take the horses or carts of any freeman for transport work save with the agreement of that freeman.
31
No removal of Wood without consent
Neither We nor Our bailiffs will take other people’s timber for castles or other works of Ours except with the agreement of him whose timber it is.
32
The Land of Felons
We will not hold for more than a year and a day the lands of those convicted of felony, and then the lands shall be handed over to the lords of the fiefs.
33
Fishtraps
Henceforth all fishtraps shall be cleared completely from the Thames and the Medway and throughout all England, except along the sea coast.
34
A Writ of Praecipe
The writ called praecipe shall not in future be issued to anyone in respect of any holding if thereby a freeman may not be tried in his Lord’s court.
35
Standardised weights & Measures
Let there be one measure for wine throughout Our Kingdom, and one measure for ale, and one measure for corn, namely ‘the London quarter’; and one width for cloths whether dyed, russet or halberget, namely two ells within the selvedges. Let it he the same with weights as with measures.
36
Writs on Life or Limb
Nothing shall be given or taken in future for the writ of inquiry concerning life or limbs, but it shall be granted free of charge and not withheld.
37
Wardship of The Crown
If anyone holds of Us by fee-farm, by socage, or by burgages and holds land of another by Knight service, We will not, by reason of that fee-farm, socage, or burgage, have the wardship of his heir or of his land that is of the fief of the other; nor will We have wardship of the fee-farm, socage, or burgage, unless such fee-farm owes Knight service. We will not have the wardship of anyone’s heir or land which he holds of another by Knight service by reason of any petty serjeanty which he holds of us by the service of rendering to us knives or arrows or the like.
38
Trial shall Not take place with unsupported evidence
No bailiff shall in future put anyone to trial upon his own unsupported testimony, without reliable witnesses brought for   this purpose.
39
Guarantee of ‘Law of the land’ for Freemen
No freeman shall be arrested or imprisoned or disseised or outlawed or exiled or in any way destroyed, neither will we set  forth against him or send against him, except by the lawful judgement of his peers and [vel] by the law of the land.
40
Guarantee of Equal Justice
To no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay right or justice.
41
Free Movement of Merchants & the treatment of such when Prisoners of War
All merchants shall have safe and secure exit from, and entry into England, and dwelling and travel in England as well by land as by water, for buying and selling by the ancient and right customs, free of all evil tolls, except in time of war and if they are of the land that is at war with us. And if such are found in our lands at the beginning of a war, they shall be taken and kept in custody [attachientur], without injury to their persons or goods, until We, or Our Chief Justiciary, know how merchants of Our land are treated who were found in the land at war with us when war broke out [tunc], and if Ours are safe there, the others shall be safe in our land.
42
Freedom to Leave & Enter
The Kingdom
Without prejudicing the allegiance due to us, it shall be lawful in future for any one to leave our kingdom and return safely and securely by land and water, save, in the public interest, for a short period in time of war – except for those imprisoned or outlawed in accordance with the law of the kingdom and natives of a land that is at war with us and merchants (who shall be treated as aforesaid).
43
Escheats
If anyone who holds of some escheats such as the honor of Wallingford, Nottingham, Boulogne, Lancaster, or of other escheats which are in our hands and are baronies dies, his heir shall give no other relief and do no other service to us than he would have done to the Baron, if that Barony had been in the Baron’s hands; and we will hold it in the same manner in which the Baron held it.
44
Laws of Foresters
Men who live outside the forests need not henceforth come before Our Justices of the forest upon a general summons, unless they are impleaded or are sureties for any person or persons who are attached for forest offences.
45
Knowledge of the Law
We will not make Justices, Constables, Sheriffs or bailiffs save of such as know the law of the kingdom and mean to observe it  well.
46
The Wardship of Abbeys
All Barons who have founded Abbeys, in respect of which they have charters of the Kings of England or of which they have had long tenure, shall have custody of them in a vacancy, as they ought to have.
47
Boundaries of Forests
All forests that have been made forest in our time shall be immediately disafforested; and so be it done with riverbanks that have been made preserves by us in our time.
48
Evil Customs of the Forests & Forresters
All evil customs connected with forests and warrens, foresters and warreners, sheriffs and their officials, riverbanks and their wardens shall immediately be inquired into in each county by twelve sworn Knights of the same county who are to he chosen by good men of the same county, and within forty days of the completion of the inquiry shall be utterly abolished so as never to be restored, provided that We, or Our Justiciary if We are not in England, have previous intimation thereof.
49
Guarantee of Hostage Return
We will immediately return all hostages and charters given to us by Englishmen, as security for peace or faithful service.
50
Purge of the Poitevin favourites
We will entirely remove from their bailiwicks the relations of Gerard d’Athee so that in future they shall have no bailiwick in England, namely Engelard de Cigognd, Peter and Guy and Andrew de Chanceaux, Guy de Cigogne, Geoffrey de Martigny and his brothers, Philip Marc and his brothers and his nephew Geoffrey, and all their followings.
51
Mercenaries Banished
As soon as peace is restored, We will remove from the Kingdom all foreign Knights, crossbowmen, serjeants, and mercenaries, who have come with horses and arms to the detriment of the kingdom.
52
Guarantee of Restoration of both lands & rights
If any one has been dispossessed or removed by Us without the legal judgement of his peers from his lands, castles, franchises or his right, We will immediately restore them to him; and if a dispute arises over this, then let it be decided by the judgement of the twenty-five Barons who are mentioned below in the clause [61] for securing the peace: for all the things, however, from which any one has been dispossessed or removed without the lawful judgement of his peers by King Henry, Our Father, or by King Richard, Our brother, which We have in Our hand or are held by others, to whom We are bound to warrant them, We will have the usual period of respite of crusaders, excepting those things about which a plea was started or an inquest made by Our command before We took the cross; when however We return from our pilgrimage, or if by any chance We do not go on it We will at once do full justice therein.
53
Respite During Crusade
We will have the same respite, and in the same manner, in the doing of justice in the matter of the de-afforestation or retention of the forests which Henry Our father or Richard Our brother afrorested [cf. clause 47], and in the matter of the wardship of lands which are of the fief of another, wardships of which sort We have hitherto had by reason of a fief which anyone held of Us by Knight service [cf. clause 37], and in the matter of Abbeys founded on the fief of another, not on a fief of our own, in which the Lord of the fief claims he has a right [cf. clause 46]; and when We have returned, or if We do not set out on our pilgrimage, We will at once do full justice to all who complain of these things.
54
The Appeal of Women!
No one shall be arrested or imprisoned upon the appeal of a woman, for the death of anyone except her husband.
55
The Remission of all unlawful Fines
All fines made with Us unjustly and against the law of the land, and all amercements [fines] imposed unjustly and against the law of the land, shall be entirely remitted, or else let them be settled by the judgement of the twenty-five Barons who are mentioned below   in  the clause [61] for securing the peace, or by the judgement of the majority of the same, along with the aforesaid Stephen, archbishop of Canterbury, if he can be present, and such others as he may wish to associate with himself for this purpose, and if he cannot be present the business shall nevertheless proceed without him, provided that if any one or more of the aforesaid twenty-five Barons are in a like suit, they shall be removed from the judgement of the case in question, and  others chosen, sworn and put in  their place by the rest of the same twenty-five for this case only.
56
theReinstatement of the Rights of Welshmen
If We have dispossessed or removed Welshmen’s from lands or liberties or other things without the legal judgement of their peers in England or in Wales, they shall be immediately restored to them; and if a dispute arises over this, then let it be decided in the March by the judgement of their peers – for holdings in England according to the law of England, for holdings in Wales according to the law of Wales, and for holdings in the March according to the law of March. Welshmen shall do the same to us and ours.
57
Respite for Welsh in line with Crusade
For all the things, however, from which any Welshman has been dispossessed or removed without the lawful judgement of his peers by King Henry, Our father, or Richard, Our brother which We have in Our hand or which are held by others, to whom We are bound to warrant them, We will have the usual period of respite of crusaders, excepting those things about which a plea was started or an inquest made by our command before We took the cross; when however We return, or if by chance we do not set out on our pilgrimage, We will at once do full justice in accordance with the laws of the Welsh and the foresaid regions.
58
Welsh hostages returned
We will give up at once the son of Llywelyn and all the hostages from Wales and the charters that were handed over to us as security for peace.
59
Guarantee of Rights to Alexander King of Scots
We will act towards Alexander, King of the Scots, concerning the return of his sisters and hostages and concerning his franchises and his right in the same manner in which We act towards our other Barons of England, unless it ought to be otherwise according to the charters which We have from William his Father, formerly King of the Scots, and this shall be according to the judgement of his peers in our court.
60
Liberty for Lesser Tenants
Moreover, all these aforesaid customs and liberties which We have granted shall be observed in Our Kingdom as far as it pertains to Us towards Our men, all of Our Kingdom, clerks as well as laymen, shall observe as far as it pertains to them towards their men.
61
The 25 Barons
To
Enforce
the Charter
as a Committee
Since, moreover, for God and the amendment of Our Kingdom  and for the better allaying of the discord that has arisen between Us and Our Barons We have granted all these things aforesaid, wishing them to enjoy the use of them unimpaired and unshaken for ever, We give and grant them the underwritten security, namely, that the Barons shall choose any twenty-five Barons of The Kingdom they wish, who must with all their might observe, hold and cause to be observed, the peace and liberties which We have granted and confirmed to them by this present charter of Ours, so that if We, or Our Justiciary, or Our bailiffs or any one of Our servants offend in any way against any one or transgress any of the articles of the peace or the security and the offence be notified to four of the aforesaid twenty-five Barons, those four Barons shall come to Us, or to Our Justiciary if We are out of The Kingdom, and, laying the transgression before Us, shall petition Us to have  that transgression corrected without delay. And if we  do  not correct the transgression, or if We are out of The Kingdom, if Our Justiciary does not correct it, within forty days, reckoning from the time it was brought to our notice or to that of Our Justiciary if We were out of The Kingdom, the aforesaid four Barons shall refer that case to the rest of the twenty-five Barons and those twenty-five Barons together with the Community of the whole land shall distrain and distress Us in every way they can, namely, by seizing castles, lands, possessions, and in such other ways as they can, saving Our Person and the persons of Our Queen and Our children, until, in their opinion, amends have been made; and when amends have been made, they shall obey Us as they did before. And let anyone in the country who wishes to do so take an oath to obey the orders of the said twenty-five Barons for the execution of all the aforesaid matters, and with them to distress Us as much as he can, and we publicly and freely give anyone leave to take the oath who wishes to take it and We will never prohibit anyone from taking it. Indeed, all those in the land who are unwilling of themselves and of their own accord to take an oath to the twenty-five Barons to help them to distrain and distress us, We will make them take the oath as aforesaid at our command. And if any of the twenty-five Barons dies or leaves the country or is in any other way prevented from carrying out the things aforesaid, the remainder of the aforesaid twenty-five Barons shall choose as they think fit another one in his place, and he shall take the oath like the rest. In all matters the execution of which is committed to these twenty-five Barons, if it should happen that these twenty-five are  present yet disagree among themselves about anything, or if some of those summoned will not or cannot be present, that shall be held as fixed and established which the majority of those present ordained or commanded, exactly as if all the twenty-five had consented to it; and the said twenty-five shall swear that they will faithfully observe all the things aforesaid and will do all they can to get them observed.
And we will procure nothing from anyone, either personally or through any one else, whereby any of these concessions and liberties might be revoked or diminished; and if any such thing be procured let it be void and null, and We will never use it either personally or through another.
62
Pardon of Trespasses and Ill Will
And We have fully remitted and pardoned to everyone all the ill-will, anger and rancour that have arisen between Us and Our men, clergy and laity, from the time of the quarrel. Furthermore, We have fully remitted to all, clergy and laity, and as far as pertains to Us have completely forgiven all trespasses occasioned by the same quarrel between Easter in the sixteenth year of Our Reign and the restoration of peace. And, besides, We have caused to be made for the Barons letters patent, bearing testimony to this security and to the concessions set out above over the seals of the Lord Stephen Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lord Henry Archbishop of Dublin and of the aforementioned Bishops and Master Pandulph.
63
The Oath observing the rights of Church & Peoples
Wherefore We wish and firmly enjoin that the English church shall be free, and that the men in our kingdom shall have and hold all the aforesaid liberties, rights and concessions well and peacefully, freely and quietly, fully and completely for themselves and their heirs from Us and Our Heirs, in all matters and in all places for ever, as is aforesaid. An oath, moreover, has been taken, as well on our part as on the part of the Barons, that all these things aforesaid shall be observed in good faith and without evil disposition. Witness the above-mentioned and many others. Given by Our hand in the meadow which is called Runnymede between Windsor and Staines on the fifteenth day of June, in the seventeenth year of Our Reign.
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To This Point

“In politics, stupidity is not a handicap.” Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821),

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‘The arrogance and hubris of corrupt politicians will be responsible for every drop of blood spilt in the Wars of Disassociation, if Britain does not leave the EU.

The ugly, centralised, undemocratic supra national policies being imposed by the centralised and largely unelected decisionmakers of The EU for alien aims, ailien values and to suit alien needs stand every possibility of creating 200,000,000 deaths across EUrope as a result of the blind arrogance and hubris of the idiologues in the central dictatorship, and their economic illiteracy marching hand in glove with the idiocy of The CAP & The CFP – both policies which deliver bills, destroy lives and denude food stocks.

The EU, due to the political idiocy and corruption of its undemocratic leaders, is now a net importer of food, no longer able to feed itself and with a decreasing range of over priced goods, of little use to the rest of the world, to sell with which to counter the net financial drain of endless imports.  
 

British Politicians with pens and treachery, in pursuit of their own agenda and greed, have done more damage to the liberty, freedoms, rights and democracy of the British peoples than any army in over 1,000 years.
 

The disastrous effects of British politicians selling Britain into the thrall of foreign rule by the EU for their own personal rewards has damaged the well-being of Britain more than the armies of Hitler and the Franco – German – Italian axis of 1939 – 1945.

 Until we gain our liberty, restore our sovereignty, repatriate our democracy and reinstate our Justice system and our borders – defended by our Police and Military armed with sustainable and obtainable weaponry: Treat every election as a referendum.

Don’t spoil your Ballot Paper by wasting it on a self serving Politician in ANY election until we are liberated from the EU and are a Free Sovereign peoples, with independent control of our own borders, making and managing Law & Justice for our own benefit, in our own elected Westminster Parliament where we can fire our politicians at the ballot box, if they fail to represent OUR best interests and de-centralise their powers.

Make your vote count Write on YOUR ballot Paper in EVERY Election:  
to GET YOUR COUNTRY BACK
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Posted in BRITISH CONSTITUTION, British Council, British people, Human rights, Law, Magna Carta, Magna Carta Notated, United States | Leave a Comment »

 
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